Dental Material – Hydroxyapatite

Oct5,2023 #Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite is the main component of tooth enamel and one of the most studied biomaterials in dentistry. It is biocompatible and well-tolerated by oral tissues.

In addition, it has also been shown to promote bone growth and tissue regeneration and enhance osseointegration in dental implants. This is why it has become a popular material for tooth grafts.

Strengthens Tooth Enamel

Hydroxyapatite is a mineral found throughout the body and is a major component of tooth enamel and the mineral part of bone. It has been used in dental applications for years including coating dental implants, bone cement and even fillings and crowns.

Hydroxyapatite has also been shown to be able to remineralize teeth and reverse tooth decay – in fact research has shown that it can be just as effective at remineralizing as fluoride. This is because the hydroxyapatite particles are incredibly small and can easily fit into the holes and pores of the tooth to repair them. This is called remineralization and is an excellent way to prevent cavities as well as protect against future bacterial acid attacks that can weaken the tooth surface.

It’s non-toxic and safe to use, especially for children. Unlike oral products with fluoride that require a Poison Control warning, hydroxyapatite doesn’t have any toxic side effects and is biocompatible, meaning the body recognizes it as a natural structure that belongs there.

As a bonus, hydroxyapatite is more bioavailable than fluoride making it more effective at remineralizing teeth. It’s able to penetrate into the pores of the tooth and replace the dissolved calcium and phosphate ions that have been lost during demineralization bringing the pH back into a state that favors remineralization.

The hydroxyapatite will also help to stabilize the mouth’s alkalinity which helps to naturally prevent oral infections and inflammation, as well as provide a better environment for good bacteria growth that can actually help to keep your teeth clean and healthy.

Hydroxyapatite is also very safe to use, and it’s a great choice for children because it’s non-toxic. However, as with any toothpaste it’s still important to supervise children when they are brushing and teach them to spit out their toothpaste.

For best results, we recommend using a paste with a particle size of 500 nm or smaller (which is considered micro hydroxyapatite). This will ensure the remineralizing benefits are delivered to the dentine tubules of the tooth rather than just the surface enamel. However, for kids that are just learning how to brush we suggest starting with a paste with a larger particle size and gradually moving towards the micro hydroxyapatite powder as they become more accustomed to its texture and effectiveness.

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Natural Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite

Thermal Spray Grade Hydroxyapatite

Remineralizes Tooth Enamel

Calcium phosphate compounds are the inorganic elements of our mineralised tissues such as bones and teeth, and they play an important role in hard tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Hydroxyapatite (HA), a type of calcium phosphate, is the main mineral in our tooth enamel and dentine, making it responsible for the toughness of teeth and their resistance to acids. HA is biocompatible and safe, which has led to its use in oral care products such as toothpaste for remineralisation of both tooth enamel and dentine and for reducing tooth sensitivity and inhibiting the growth of dental plaque.

Conventional dentistry uses fluoride to help remineralise enamel and prevent tooth decay, but studies have shown that hydroxyapatite does just as well without the risks of over-exposure. It does so by stabilizing the mouth’s alkaline pH level and making teeth more resistant to acid, which can destroy them.

HA is also used as a bone building material in regenerative dentistry for healing periodontal (gum) disease, filling bone defects caused by cyst removal and apicoectomies and increasing the height of atrophic alveolar ridges. This technique can reduce the need for bone grafting and can increase the quality of dental implants.

Hydroxyapatite remineralisation is dependent on saliva quality, however, so it can be augmented by the addition of a non-toxic, natural compound known as nacre. The addition of nacre to a remineralising toothpaste helps stabilize the pH and improve its efficacy by increasing the amount of HA it releases into the mouth.

It is recommended to use a toothpaste that contains both micro-HA and nacre, and to apply it gently, with extra attention to the gum line and in between your teeth. It is also advised not to rinse the mouth for at least 10 minutes after applying it. This will allow the HA to fully remineralise the enamel, leaving it stronger and more acid-resistant.

Whitens Tooth Enamel

Hydroxyapatite is an important component of the enamel and dentine in our teeth and bones, making up over 90% of the foundation of a healthy tooth. When lab-created, it is known as calcium phosphate and is often used as a natural alternative to fluoride in toothpaste due to its naturally remineralizing and restorative properties.

The remineralizing and desensitizing qualities of HAP help to strengthen teeth while whitening and smoothing the tooth surface. Hydroxyapatite is able to do this by filling in microscopic pits and fissures on the tooth surface, thereby reducing the roughness of the tooth and preventing future mineral loss. In addition, it conclusively blocks dentin tubules and prevents the penetration of acids from plaque bacteria into the tooth to cause sensitivity.

This makes hydroxyapatite tooth powder an ideal ingredient for a whitening toothpaste. It also helps to polish the surface of the tooth while removing stains and plaque that would otherwise be difficult to remove with just brushing alone. Unlike some whitening ingredients, HAP is safe and does not pose any risk of damage to the teeth or gums.

While some whitening toothpastes contain chemicals like triclosan, hydroxyapatite does not have any negative side effects and is safe to use for both adults and children. Moreover, if your child accidentally swallows some of the toothpaste, the small amount of hydroxyapatite that is in it will not be harmful.

Because hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral in our body, it is completely biocompatible with teeth and poses no risk of toxicity or adverse effects. Moreover, unlike fluoride, which can be a concern for people with sensitivities or allergies to it, hydroxyapatite does not require any Poison Control warnings on the label.

An observational pilot study of 25 patients found that a toothpaste with particulate microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH), was able to improve a range of subjective whitening parameters and to significantly reduce dentin hypersensitivity. The study also found that a 2-minute application of the hydroxyapatite toothpaste twice daily significantly improved both the appearance and sensitivity of the teeth.

Deepens Tooth Enamel

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate that’s a major component of our tooth enamel and dentine. It is also a popular ingredient in many oral products that claim to remineralize teeth, reduce tooth sensitivity and prevent cavities and decay. However, clinical data on these hydroxyapatite products is limited with varied results. What’s more, it is important to distinguish between natural remineralization and remineralisation through dental materials.

Natural remineralization occurs when teeth are exposed to minerals that can counteract the effects of harmful acids and bacteria on our enamel, such as fluoride and triclosan. These minerals are found in toothpaste, mouthwash and other dental products. Hydroxyapatite is a non-toxic alternative to these traditional ingredients that can strengthen the enamel, reduce tooth sensitivity and prevent cavities.

When applied topically to teeth, HA helps remineralize the enamel by binding with its ions and filling in the small micro-pores of the enamel. The structure of HA is similar to the mineral composition of teeth and bone and can be formed into different structures, such as nanorods, hierarchically nanostructured mesoporous rhombs or hollow microspheres. Depending on the synthesis method, HA has a number of unique properties that make it an excellent candidate for dental applications.

By forming a synthetic enamel layer, HA can help the teeth resist future acid attacks and promote remineralization. When dissolved, hydroxyapatite releases calcium and phosphate ions to neutralize the acids that would otherwise cause demineralisation.

The remineralization process of the teeth is initiated by a complex interaction between saliva, proteins, microorganisms and the enamel. Hydroxyapatite can accelerate this process by promoting the binding of calcium ions to the enamel. It also increases the pH levels in the mouth to stabilize the enamel and prevent acid attacks from bacteria.

In addition to remineralizing the teeth, HA can also prevent gum disease by decreasing inflammation and stimulating cell regeneration. It can even prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to gingivitis by blocking their passageways and preventing them from attaching to the tooth surface. It is this combination of preventative and restorative benefits that makes hydroxyapatite a great alternative to traditional fluoride toothpaste.

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